Single and dual axis solar tracker using Arduino and the corresponding increase in solar energy output

Single and dual axis solar tracker using Arduino and the corresponding increase in solar energy output

January 18, 2017 0 Comments

Trackers direct solar panels or modules towards the sun. These devices change their orientation throughout the day to follow the sun’s path to maximize energy capture.


In photovoltaic systems, trackers help minimize the angle of incidence between the incoming light and the panel, which increases the amount of energy a static device produces. Concentrated solar photovoltaic and concentrated solar thermal have optics that directly accept sunlight, so solar trackers must be angled correctly to collect energy. 


This blog describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal static axis to a rotational axis and hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, an efficient single axis and hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. These trackers includes single (for single axis) & three solar panels (for dual axis) as three different sources which are being controlled by a single unit. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed trackers a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of single axis solar tracking system is almost double to static axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 87%.


Single Axis Tracking System:

Mechanical Design:



Materials I have used easily available components for this prototype. Specific materials should be designed in case of larger systems as per requirement.


Electrical Design:

Circuit Diagram


Data Analysis


Real Time Images:




 How it works is shown in the video below:



Dual Axis Trackers:

Dual axis trackers have two degrees of freedom that act as axes of rotation. These axes are typically normal to one another. The axis that is fixed with respect to the ground can be considered a primary axis. The axis that is referenced to the primary axis can be considered a secondary axis.

Dual axis trackers allow for optimum solar energy levels due to their ability to follow the Sun vertically and horizontally. No matter where the Sun is in the sky, dual axis trackers are able to angle themselves to be in direct contact with the Sun.

Mechanical Design:


Data Analysis


Real Time Images:






Swarnadeep Padhikar

Swarnadeep Padhikar 

Project Engineer, AlienSolar

He did B.Tech on Electrical Engineering from JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani. After completion his degree he started his carrier at AlienSolar as project engineer and aspiring to serve it in a better way.


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